The Many Benefits of Meditation for Older Adults
Doctors often prescribe the practice for better health and wellness, even later in life.
You can start a meditation program at any time, even without a doctor’s OK.(WESTEND61/GETTY IMAGES)
WHEN DR. STEPHANIE Cheng conducts health exams with older adult patients, she often goes beyond reviewing their medications and determining treatment plans. Cheng incorporates meditation exercises into the visits. “If I notice they are overwhelmed or have emotional distress, I may do a brief meditation exercise with them, just so they can be exposed to it as a tool to feel a greater sense of well-being,” says Cheng, a palliative care physician in the division of geriatrics at the University of California—San Francisco.
Cheng’s approach isn’t unconventional. Meditation is a well-studied practice shown to have many health benefits. It’s commonly prescribed as a way to help treat chronic disease and mood disorders. That makes meditation a natural fit, Cheng says, when older age brings physical, mental and emotional changes.
What Is Meditation?
Meditation is a way to calm the mind and body. It requires that you sit or lie down, relax and pay little attention to thoughts as they drift in an out of your mind. “It can be viewed as an antidote to the fight-or-flight response,” Cheng says. “When you meditate, in general, the breath slows down, heart rate slows, blood pressure decreases, stress decreases, digestive function improves and the sense of tension in the body decreases.”
- Transcendental meditation: focusing on a word or sound that you repeat over and over (such as “peace” or “om”).
- Mindfulness meditation: concentrating on the present moment without judging it. Offshoots include mindfulness-based stress reduction, or MBSR, and mindfulness-based cognitive therapy, or MBCT. “MBSR is more to reduce stress. MBCT helps you cope with emotional stressors,” explains psychologist Moria Smoski, associate professor of psychiatry and behavioral sciences at Duke Health.
- Guided imagery: focusing on mental images, such as a beach or a calming environment.
- Centering prayer: a religious practice that uses a sacred word to focus on connecting to a higher power.
- Body scan: concentrating on one body part at a time and investigating its sensations, such as how it feels where it touches the floor or bed, whether it’s cold or hot and whether there is pain or tingling.
Benefits for Seniors
Meditation is associated with many psychological and physical benefits. “In general, it’s been shown to decrease blood pressure and inflammation. And there’s some data around improving coronary artery disease outcomes and helping with post-traumatic stress disorder, chronic painand headaches,” Cheng says.
Meditation is also associated with reductions in irritable bowel symptoms, depression, anxiety and insomnia, according to the National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health.
Several areas of research appear to be especially encouraging for older adults:
- Memory. “Meditation is associated with enhanced short- and long-term memory,” says neuropsychologist Jean Lengenfelder, assistant director of traumatic brain injury research at the Kessler Foundation.
- Cognitive decline. “Meditation may help preserve cognitive function in folks who are starting to have struggles with memory and cognition. It’s associated with maintaining function longer than if you didn’t have a meditation practice,” Smoski says. A 2014 review of a dozen studiesinvolving older adults, published in Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, suggested that meditation was linked to positive effects on attention, memory, executive function, processing speed and general cognition.
- Digestion and circulation. “One study found that people who meditated had improved circulation and oxygen in their blood. For the elderly, that’s important because as we age, digestion and circulation problems develop,” Lengenfelder says.
- Stress. “Meditation has been shown to decrease stress and have a calming effect on older adults,” Lengenfelder notes. “That can help them organize their thinking and give them a clearer perspective. They have improved focus, and their mind is sharp.”
- Loneliness. A 2012 study published in Brain, Behavior, and Immunity linked eight weeks of mindfulness meditation with decreased loneliness in older adults.
“It can be transformative,” Smoski agrees. “I’ve seen meditation help people feel more grounded as they’re going through difficult situations. It improves their sense of resiliency.”
You can start a meditation program at any time, even without a doctor’s OK. You’ll find free meditation podcasts on the internet. Smoski recommends turning to academic mindfulness centers for those, like the UCLA Mindful Awareness Research Center.
If you’d like to try a meditation class geared toward older adults, look to local senior centers, hospitals, private studios and retirement facilities.
But you don’t have to limit yourself to a class that’s age-appropriate. Lengenfelder points out that you can adapt any kind of meditation to work with your physical and cognitive limits. For example:
- If you have trouble getting up and down from the floor, you can sit in a chair or lie in a bed. “Research has shown that meditation done in a chair still has that benefit of lowering blood pressure and heart rate and increasing feelings of well-being,” Lengenfelder says.
- If you have hearing impairment, you may feel more comfortable listening to a meditation podcast at a volume that’s best for you. In a classroom, you may want to sit in the front near the instructor so you can hear directions.
- If you have cognitive decline, it may be easier to practice guided meditation. “It will provide a lot of cuing, and you won’t have to rely on your own thoughts to get through the meditation,” Lengenfelder explains.
And some of the best parts about meditation: It’s pill-free, you can do it anywhere and it works fast. “We don’t know how long it takes to feel better; some people report improvements even after one meditation session. It enhances their mood and increases their energy,” Lengenfelder says. “The more frequently you meditate, the more benefits you can experience.”
“It’s so accessible,” Cheng says. “There are so many forms of meditation that everyone can find what resonates with them and weave it into their daily lives. I’m sure the trend will continue.”
Good Afternoon Friends and Members of the North Orange County Senior Collaborative:
Just a reminder that we will be meeting for our All Member General Meeting tomorrow Tuesday, 17 July from 8:30-10 a.m. here at St. Jude Community Services Building. Many things to discuss, including beginning to look at ways to meet the unmet ‘Loneliness’ need that our recent survey indicates that we need to address. The new Senior Resource Guide is out and ready for you to pick up and distribute to your clients and patients, and there are updates on current legislation impacting older adults that you’ll want to become familiar with too.
Deprescribing Medications for Older Adults
Paring down bloated drug regimens enhances health, safety and quality of life.
According to an article in the Journal of Family Practice, more than one-third of U.S. adults in their early 60s and older take at least five prescription medications.(GETTY IMAGES)
MANY OLDER ADULTS TAKE too many prescription drugs or take them at too-high doses. Prescriptions started long ago to treat temporary medical conditions somehow never get stopped. Other preventive drugs may offer little to no benefit after a certain age and bring unacceptable side effects for older users.
A movement is underway to eliminate excess medications that are more likely to harm than help older patients. Known as deprescribing, it comes down to thoughtfully evaluating and rightsizing individual drug regimens that build up for patients in the course of their lives.
Polypharmacy, or overmedication, is defined in a variety of ways. One commonly used threshold is a medication routine involving five or more different drugs. Patients may accumulate much higher drug totals, according to Cynthia Blevins, a certified registered nurse practitioner at Penn State Health General Internal Medicine of Lancaster. Blevins, a strong proponent of deprescribing, is also an adjunct professor with the nurse practitioner program at Millersville University in Pennsylvania.
It’s not just a matter of counting pills. The larger issue is people taking medication they don’t need.
Blevins describes a patient who came in for admission to a nursing home where she practiced. Earlier in life, he was obese and had high blood pressure. But circumstances changed and he lost a significant amount of weight – yet he still was taking four antihypertensive drugs. As a result, his blood pressure was dangerously low. “Nobody was following up on or carefully tracking him,” she says. Once these medications were cut, his blood pressure became stable.
More than one-third of U.S. adults in their early 60s and beyond take at least five prescription medications, according to a review article in the July 2017 issue of the Journal of Family Practice. The study, led by Dr. Kathryn McGrath, a geriatrician and an assistant professor affiliated with Thomas Jefferson University Hospitals in Philadelphia, gives health care providers a roadmap for deprescribing.
An unintended but vicious cycle can lead to overmedication. “Polypharmacy often occurs when an adverse drug effect is misinterpreted as a new medical problem – leading to the prescribing of more medication to treat the initial drug-induced symptom,” the authors explain.
Death By Prescription
Drug interactions can worsen fluid retention for people with heart failure, increase stroke risk in people with dementia, further damage kidney function in people with kidney disease or worsen urinary problems such as retention or incontinence.
Research on the health benefits of deprescribing is ongoing, but findings so far are promising. After deprescribing, patients have been shown to have fewer falls, improved cognition and greater satisfaction.
Talk to your health care providers and pharmacist about trimming your medication list down to size. Here’s how deprescribing works.
Identify your medication “quarterback.” Your primary care physician or nurse practitioner – your regular health care provider – is likely the best choice for re-evaluating your medication collection. After you’ve been discharged from the hospital or have seen a specialist, your regular provider can sort out new drug orders.
“Often, the cardiologist has not paid attention to what the rheumatologist has prescribed,” says James McCormack, a professor in the faculty of pharmaceutical sciences with the University of British Columbia in Vancouver, Canada. “The rheumatologist has not paid attention to what the psychiatrist has prescribed. That’s where everything goes to hell in a handbasket.”
Talk to your pharmacist. Your community pharmacist can alert you to medication hazards and identify drugs that could be safely tapered and eliminated. Maximizing quality of life for older adults is a primary goal of deprescribing, says Tasha Woodall, the associate director of pharmacotherapy in geriatrics with the Mountain Area Health Education Center in Asheville, North Carolina.
Bring in all your medications for review. A massive collection of medications in their respective containers makes a powerful case for deprescribing. To do so, clinicians use specific deprescribing guidelines and algorithms to evaluate and prioritize your medications.
Re-evaluate dosages. Your body’s ability to break down and eliminate drugs decreases by about half from age 30 to 70, McCormack says. “Probably three-quarters to 80 percent of all side effects are due to doses: giving too much,” he says. Reducing doses as people get older is a major component of proper prescribing and deprescribing.
Consider lifestyle alternatives. Instead of taking a statin, you could realize as much or more benefit by exercising and eating in a healthier way to lower your risk of a heart attack or stroke. Similarly, doing these lifestyle changes will likely reduce borderline high blood pressure without the side effects of antihypertensive drugs.
Ask whether benefits are meaningful. Among people who’ve never had a heart attack or stroke, only about one to three of 100 will benefit over five to 10 years from taking a statin or blood-pressure drug, McCormack says. Whether that preventive boost is worth it depends on the individual, he says: “There’s only one person who can decide that – and that’s you.”
Take a hard look at risks. Older adults with an irregular heartbeat called atrial fibrillation are often prescribed blood-thinning, or anticoagulant, drugs to reduce their risk for stroke. However, warfarin and other anti-clotting pills carry bleeding risks. Doctors and patients should weigh these risks together.
Be cautious with sedatives. Cutting back on insomnia or anxiety drugs like Xanax and Ativan is a good starting point for deprescribing, Woodall says. Any medication that affects the central nervous system – including sedatives, antipsychotics and antidepressants – should be carefully reconsidered.
“A lot of those medications continue to be appropriate for somebody’s entire life,” Woodall says. “But the cumulative effect of having someone on three, four or five of these psychotropic medications that impact their brain can spell out a recipe for disaster in terms of falling and cognitive decline.”
Pay attention to antacids. Antacid drugs known as “proton pump inhibitors,” such as Nexium, Prilosec or generic omeprazole provide short-term relief for gastrointestinal issues like acid reflux or heartburn. However, long-term use tends to accelerate bone loss, Woodall says.
Long-term use of PPI drugs also puts older adults at risk for infection with Clostridium difficile bacteria, Blevins notes, which can cause severe gastric problems. Pneumonia is another potential C. difficile side effect.
Don’t overlook OTC drugs. It’s also important to sift through any over-the-counter drugs and products. For instance, using Benadryl as a sleep aid, which many seniors do, is discouraged. Vitamins, dietary supplements, herbal remedies and even topical creams and gels should be scrutinized, too.
Think about cost. Reducing costs is another benefit of eliminating unneeded medication. For drugs that do help, switching to generic versions is another way to cut costs.
Eliminate medications with care. By discontinuing only one medication at a time, you and your health care team can keep a close eye on how that affects you. In many cases, gradually reducing the dose on a tapering schedule is safer than abruptly discontinuing the medication.
Deprescribing isn’t a one-time measure, but a process, Woodall says: “We continue circling back with the patient. Sometimes we have to add things back that we tried to get rid of. Other times it’s very successful and we keep going and peeling things away the best that we can.”